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PRE 1800
Hemsworth Huntington's History of Newcastle Henry William Hemsworth Huntington was a noted authority of colonial history. He compiled a history of Newcastle and the Hunter District, N.S.W., which was published in a series of 101 columns twice weekly in the Newcastle Morning Herald. The series begins in 1770 when Captain Cook noted Nobbys in his journal and continues through to the 1840s
Indigenous Notes and Links Links to pages mentioning indigenous tribes of the Hunter River
Discovery of Coal by escaping convicts in 1791 Various accounts of the famous escape of William and Mary Bryant and their companions from the colony of New South Wales in 1791. Their escape from the colony is significant for Newcastle as they are believed to be the first Europeans to discover coal in the colony
Launch of the Francis The Francis was Launched in Sydney in September 1793. The Francis made many voyages to Newcastle including the Expedition to the Coal River in 1801. She returned to Sydney with a cargo of coal which was exchanged for nails and iron and shipped out on the Earl Cornwallis. This is believed to be the first shipment of coal exported from Newcastle
Hunter River Discovered 1797  
Female Convicts List of 98 Convict Ships identifying female convicts residing in the Hunter Valley in the years up to 1860.

1800 - 1806
Pirates Seize the Norfolk The Norfolk was wrecked at a point afterwards called Pirates' Point, and now known as Stockton
Expedition to the Hunter River Members of the expedition included Lieutenant James Grant, Lieut-Colonel Paterson, Dr. Harris, Surgeon of the New South Wales Corps; Ensign Barrallier, Surveyor; John William Lewin, artist, George Caley, botanist. There were also a number of workmen and labourers, for the purpose of cutting and sawing timber, digging and loading coals etc; and also one of the natives named Bungaree
Lieutenant James GrantReturned to England via the Cape on the Anna Josepha in 1802. The Aberdeen Journal later published Lieut. Grant's account of the young colony and of the expedition to the Hunter River in 1801
Colliers Point and the First Settlement at Newcastle 1801 - 1802. Lieut-Colonel Paterson's description of Collier's Point
Early Convict Coal MinersGovernor King established a settlement at 'Coal River' with the intention of mining coal to contribute to financing the colony and to separate worrying Irish political leaders from the main colony.
Castle Hill Rebellion March 1804 - The Castle Hill Rebellion was Australia’s first uprising. It was an attempt by a Irish convicts to overthrow British rule in New South Wales and return to Ireland where they could continue to fight for an Irish republic. Sometimes referred to as Australia's Battle of Vinegar Hill, the uprising was quelled by soldiers of the NSW Corps and resulted in executions and severe corporal punishment to those involved. Many of those involved were sent to the Coal River to toil in the coal mines
Convicts from the Castle Hill Rebellion Having been abandoned by Government towards the end of 1802, the possibility of establishing valuable commercial enterprise coupled with a desire to remove the worst of the Irish insurgents from Sydney district in the aftermath of the rebellion at Castle Hill, encouraged Governor King to re-settle Coal River.
Second Settlement In the aftermath of the rebellion the Coal River Settlement was re-established under the command of twenty-one year old Royal Marine Lieut. Charles Menzies in 1804.
John Tucker Appointed Store keeper at Newcastle in 1804
Cedar Getters Correspondence from Lieut. Menzies re the difficulties of procuring cedar
Convict Pirates 1804 A description of the fate of convicts pirates at the hand of natives near Newcastle in 1804
Thomas Brady Irish Rebel. Sent to Coal River penal settlement in the aftermath of the Battle of Castle Hill 1804
Newcastle Past  
Charles Throsby First sent to Newcastle penal settlement as assistant surgeon and magistrate in August 1804.
Instructions to Ensign Draffen 1805
Charles Throsby to Newcastle On the Francis in March 1805
Pirates at Newcastle in 1806 An account of the fate of convict escapees at Newcastle

Commandants at Newcastle 1804 - 1821 and approximate age they took up duties :

March 1804 - February 1805 - Lieutenant Charles Menzies Age 21
March 1805 - 20th March 1805 - Ensign Cadwallader Draffen Age 23
20th March 1805 - December 1805 - Charles Throsby Age 28
December 1805 (Temporary) - Lieutenant William Lawson Age 31
December 1805 - September 1808 - Charles Throsby Age 29
September 1808 - December 1808 - Ensign Villiers
December 1808 - February 1810 - Lieutenant William Lawson Age 34
February 1810 - December 1811 - Lieutenant John Purcell Age 37
December 1811 - February 1814 - Lieutenant Skottowe
February 1814 - June 1816 - Lieutenant Thomas Thompson
June 1816 - December 1818 - Captain James Wallis (46th regiment) Age 31
December 1818 - 1823 - Major James Thomas Morisset Age 38

1807 - 1810
Government Rules 1807 It was thought necessary to prevent the prisoners at the settlement having any contact with the outside world and to that end Crews of Vessels at Newcastle were forbidden to Trade Stores. New orders were issued to that effect.
Lime Burners Gang  
George Crossley Arrived on the Hillsborough in 1799.  In the aftermath of the Bligh affair, he was sent to the penal settlement at Newcastle.
William Gore Provost-Marshall - In 1808 in the aftermath of the Bligh affair, William Gore was charged with perjury by a rebel court. He was sentenced to transportation and sent to work at the penal settlement at Newcastle
Sir Henry Browne Hayes Sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1808. He acquired a cottage while there which was later converted to a hospital. This was probably the first hospital in Newcastle and may have been the only one until about 1817.
Murder at Newcastle1808
Lieutenant William Lawson Appointed Commandant at the penal settlement at Newcastle in December 1808 to replace Ensign Villiers who returned to Headquarters in Sydney
Thomas Crump Arrived on the Surprize in 17 in 1794. Employed as a boat builder at Newcastle c. 1804 - 1810
Governor Macquarie's Notice Re retraction of free pardons
Correspondence of Lieut Lawson To Governor Macquarie regarding the state of the settlement at Newcastle in 1810
Roger Farrell's Correspondence Roger Farrell was sent to Newcastle penal settlement in 1808 having been a supporter of Governor Bligh. He later wrote to Governor Bligh telling of the injustices he had suffered since
Newcastle Penal Settlement in 1810 Under command of Lieutenant John Purcell of 73rd Regiment who arrived per Anne in February 1810 and was appointed Commandant at Newcastle soon afterwards. A month by month account of the difficulties he faced in providing lime, coal and timber desperately needed in Sydney
William Evans Appointed assistant-surgeon at Newcastle in 1810

1811 - 1816
James Hardy Vaux One of Australia's most famous convicts. He was transported three times over a period of thirty years. First on the Minorca in 1801, then on the Indian in 1810, and in 1831 the Waterloo. While serving at Newcastle penal settlement in 1811 he wrote his Memoirs including the Vocabulary of the Flash Language, Australia's first dictionary
Governor Macquarie's Tour of Inspection In 1811 Governor Macquarie embarked on a voyage to inspect distant settlements. He first sailed to Hobart on the Lady Nelson, then an overland journey to Port Dalrymple; a voyage to Port Stephens followed and then to Newcastle where they arrived on 3rd January 1812
William Harrison CraigConvict artist, arrived on the Guildford in 1812. In August 1812 he was convicted of forgery and sentenced to 50 lashes in the public market place (Sydney) and then to be sent to Newcastle for seven years hard labour.
Convict Assignment and PunishmentGovernment Orders to prevent absconding from the settlement in 1813
Pirates Seize the Speedwell Edward Scarr, Joseph Burridge, Herbert Styles and John Pierce made their escape from the Newcastle settlement on the night of the 7th April at about 11 o'clock in the sloop Speedwell
Walter Preston Convict Engraver arrived on the Guildford in 1812. He was sent to Newcastle for a colonial crime in 1814
William Eckford Early Harbour Pilot
Lieutenant Thomas Thompson Commandant at Newcastle February 1814 - June 1816
Newcastle Port Regulations Permission was required to enter and leave the port of Newcastle in 1815
Drowned in the Hunter River 1815
Joseph Lycett It is over two hundred years since convict Joseph Lycett embarked on the General Hewitt to begin his years in exile. He remained in Australia only seven years and by the time he died in England in 1828 he was a convicted criminal several times over.
Gentleman John Smith First sent to Newcastle in 1815

1816 - 1820
Newcastle Gaol Newcastle gaol was constructed in 1816 - 1818 on a site overlooking the ocean above Newcastle beach during Commandant James Wallis' tenure at Newcastle
Captain James Wallis Of the 46th regiment arrived on the General Hewitt in 1814. He was Commandant at Newcastle penal settlement from June 1816 to December 1818
Henry Wrensford First Schoolmaster at Newcastle 1816
Shipwrecks at Newcastle 1816
The brig Kangaroo at Newcastle Arrived in March
Death of Private Peter Connachton At the hands of natives near Newcastle
Governor Macquarie's Visit to Newcastle 1818
A Description of Newcastle Aboriginal people By traveller W.B. Cramp written in 1818
Boatbuilder - Fortisco de Santo Arrived on the Guildford in 1812. Employed as a boat builder c. 1820
Abraham Fenton Appointed Assistant Surgeon at Newcastle
Newcastle in 1820 Newspaper Extracts - Death of Burrigan in October
Coal Fire Beacon at Newcastle A new Beacon was built in 1820's when E.C. Close was employed as Engineer at Newcastle.
Botany Bay Hero Michael Keane arrived on the Seaflower in 1820 and spent two years in Newcastle working in the Gaol and Limeburner's gang in the years 1820 - 1822.

1821 - 1825
John Bingle Arrived as second officer on the convict ship Minerva on 16th December 1821. He became partners with Robert Coram Dillon and together they established a Commercial business at No.2 Watt Street, Newcastle.
Alexander Livingstone Arrived as Chief Officer on the Jessie
Rev. George Augustus Middleton Appointed to Newcastle
William Smith Arrived on the Larkins in 1817.  Overseer of boat builders. 1821 - 1824
Henry DangarSurveyed the streets of Newcastle in 1822 - 1823
George BrooksWas appointed assistant surgeon at Newcastle in 1822 and promoted to the position of Surgeon in 1829
Bells Bells played an important part in the lives of our ancestors
Convicts at Newcastle in 1822 Newspaper Extracts
A List of Buildings at Newcastle 1822
Cottage Creek  
Henry Gillman Commandant at Newcastle in 1823
Newcastle in 1824 Newspaper Extracts
Lieutenant Thomas Owen Arrived as part of the Guard on the convict ship Henry in 1823. He was Engineer of Public Works and Naval Officer at Newcastle in 1824
Francis Allman Appointed Commandant at Newcastle
Newcastle in 1825 Newspaper Extracts
Rev. Lancelot Threlkeld Made two voyages from Sydney to Newcastle in 1825, the first in January and the second in March, prior to moving with his family in May. He made the voyages on the cutter Lord Liverpool, the only vessel regularly visiting the settlement at that time. He was permitted to reside at the government cottage at Newcastle and remained there with his family until December 1825 before they moved to the Mission at Reid's Mistake.
Pirates Seize the cutter Eclipse Newcastle in 1825
Horse Patrols and the Mounted Police Hunter Valley 1825 - 1826

1826 - 1830
Explosion at Newcastle  
Newcastle and Maitland In 1826 a correspondent to the Monitor who possessed land in the vicinity of Wallis Plains, made a voyage from Sydney to Newcastle. In a series of letters to the Monitor in June 1826 he described the trip to Newcastle where he observed the salt works and Macquarie pier.
Attempt to Seize the Gurnett Newcastle in 1826
Duncan Forbes Mackay Superintendent of Public Works at Newcastle in 1826
Signal Flags at Newcastle 1827No longer a penal settlement, the township was lacking in government funding.
Samuel WrightAppointed Superintendent of Police at Newcastle
The Bank of Newcastle First Provincial Bank established in the Colony
Newcastle Publicans 1828
Newcastle in 1828 There were less than fifty houses in Newcastle in 1828, mostly cottages and houses built by convicts and trades people. Other buildings included government buildings such as the Commissariat, gaol and hospital.
Newcastle in 1829 In correspondence to the Sydney Gazette a visitor describes the township as it was in 1829
Alexander Walker Scott Granted 2560 acres of land at Ash Island in 1829

1830 - 1840
Female Factory at Newcastle Lists of female convicts sent to the factory
Pilots and Harbour Masters Arnold Fisk
Alexander Livingstone
William Cromarty
George Jackson
Charles Hughes
Richard Beacher
James Reid Resided at Newcastle in 1830s - 1840s
Australian Agricultural CompanyIn 1830 the government handed over its Newcastle coal mines to the Australian Agricultural Company and coal mining became the most profitable arm of the company for the rest of the century
Sea Grave Yard In the early days before the coming of steam boats, the picturesque coastline up from Sydney and welcome sight of Nobbys on a clear day were an event to be looked forward to by the crew of the little 'sixty milers'. However if the weather turned foul and a south easterly gale whipped up mountainous waves, it was a different story and the narrow passage became a nightmare
Executions at Newcastle, Maitland and the Hunter Valley1830s - 1840s
First Mine at Newcastle Australian Agricultural Company
A. A.  Company miners  
Hunter River Steamers  
Sophie Jane Steamer A Voyage to Newcastle on the Sophie Jane in 1831 and list of residents in the town
Commander Edward Biddulph In command of the Sophia Jane steamer 1831
Rev. Charles Pleydell Neale Wilton Timeline and Notes
Governor Bourke to Newcastle 1833
John Field Gaoler at Newcastle Gaol
Governor Bourke to Newcastle 1836
Military Barracks at Newcastle Excerpts from newspaper articles detailing the building and use of the Military Barracks at Newcastle 1836 - 1872
James Henry Crummer Magistrate at Newcastle 1837 - 1849
Miner at Newcastle - refusal to work Australian Agricultural Company
Frank the Poet Australia's well known convict poet Francis McNamara 'Frank The Poet' arrived on the Eliza convict ship in 1832
Richard Tasker Furlong Engineer and Superintendent at No. 3 Stockade, Newcastle in 1839
United States Exploring Expedition  
Law and Order The Police Force in Newcastle and Hunter Valley prior to 1862
Newcastle Inns Ship Inn
Commercial Inn
Miners Arms Inn
Rouses Hotel
The Newcastle Inn
Victoria Inn
Crooked Billett
The Australian Inn
Woolpack Inn
Union Inn

1841 - 1850
Bushrangers near Newcastle Escape from the Stockade
Stockton History and Links  
Governor Gipps' Visit to Newcastle1844
Journal of a Voyage from Sydney to Newcastle and MaitlandExcerpt from a Journal written by David Burn dated 1 Aug. 1844-19 Feb. 1845 in which he describes his trip to Newcastle and the Hunter River by Steamer in October 1844
Edward Last Appointed assistant engineer at Newcastle Stockade in July 1844
George Elde Darby Surveyor and Headmaster at Newcastle
John Edward Stacy Medical practitioner, established at Newcastle
Reminiscences of George Priest Description of Newcastle in 1840s and 1850s
Alexander Gamack Appointed Medical Pracitioner and Surgeon at Newcastle
John Edward Newell Bull Appointed Superintendent of the breakwater at Newcastle

1850 - 1900
Reminiscences of Colin Christie Description of Newcastle in 1850s
Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming Newcastle 1850s
Reminiscences Hugh Gilmour Newcastle 1850s
SandhillsBy 1852 the East end of Newcastle and the harbour were filling with sand. Read about the proposed (environmentally friendly) solution to this problem in the Report on the Sandhills at Newcastle 1852
Richard Ryther Steer Bowker Medical Practitioner
County Electors in Newcastle 1855
Port of Newcastle  
Signal Staff at Newcastle 1858
Coal Mines at Newcastle 1858 Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining Engineers Vol VI, 1858, 'On the Coalfield of New South Wales' by Henry T. Plews
Reminiscences of James Charles Davies Newcastle and Stockton 1860's - 1932
Reminiscences of Owen Ahern Newcastle in 1860's
Cosby William Morgan Honorary Medical Office - Newcastle Hospital
Harbour Lights A brief account of the leading lights built at Newcastle in 1865
Newcastle Lifeboats  
Adamstown A brief history - School principals 1877 - 1974 - Methodist Primitive church - Ellis Cup winners - Rosebuds
John James Coombes Convict Ship Captain and later wharfinger at Newcastle
Reminiscences of Benjamin Joseph Oliver Newcastle in 1870s and 1880s
City Baths  
Reminiscences of Watt Street, Newcastle  

1900 - 1950
A Last Farewell Anzac Day at Newcastle in 1916
Fleming Brothers Reunion 1923 Sons of Peter Fleming re-unite at Newcastle in 1923
Australia's Strongest Sports Centre Newcastle 1947
Islands in the lower Hunter RiverMoscheto Island
Dempsey Island
Spit Island
Spectacle Island
Bullock Island
Ash Island

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