Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Henry William Hemsworth Huntington

History of Newcastle

Henry William Hemsworth Huntington was a noted authority of colonial history. He compiled a history of Newcastle and the Hunter District, N.S.W., which was published in a series of 101 columns twice weekly in the Newcastle Morning Herald from 10 August 1897 to 2 August 1898. Below are links to each of the Articles with brief notes on the content of the entries.

History of Newcastle and the Northern District....

Article No. 1 -
Apocryphal Accounts of Newcastle Coast in 1542
Cook Discovers Nobby Island in 1770
Cook Discovers Port Stephens in 1770
Newcastle Morning Herald 10 August 1897

Article No. 2 -

Phillip's Intention to settle at Port Stephens
Lieutenant Shortland (senior) sights the Newcastle coast in 1788
Newcastle Morning Herald 13 August 1897

Article No. 3

Convicts settle at Port Stephens 1790 - 1795
Newcastle probably visited in 1790
Conflict with the Port Stephens Native in 1795
Newcastle Morning Herald 17 August 1897

Article No. 4

H.M.S. Providence visits Port Stephens in 1795
First Discovery of Aboriginal dialects differing
Newcastle Harbour explored in 1796
Affray with the Newcastle Natives in 1796
Newcastle Morning Herald 20 August 1897

Article No. 5.
Runaway convicts turn pirates and bushrangers - 1791
Deaths in the Bush
A Disastrous Voyage - Sydney Cove in 1797
Discovery of coal at Bulli
Newcastle Morning Herald 24 August 1897

Article No. 6

Piratical Seizure of the Cumberland - 1797
Lieutenant Shortland's Discovery of Newcastle Harbour 1797
Mineral Discoveries in Australia up to 1796
The birth of the Coal Industry at Newcastle
Newcastle Morning Herald 27 August 1897

Article No. 7.
Newcastle Scenery in June 1796
Newcastle district - The Garden of the Universe
Newcastle coal true
The Antiquity of the Coal Beds
Creation of the Carboniferous period
Prehistoric forest of Newcastle
Our wonderful ancient forests
Awe inspiring forests
How our Coal beds were produced
Medals of Newcastle's ancient forest
Burning mountain near the Hunter
Newcastle Morning Herald 31 August 1897

Article No. 8

Coal Cliff coal inaccessible
Coal of good quality
Military Oligarchy and Military traders in 1795
A much needed change
Newcastle Morning Herald 3 September 1897

Article No. 9

Bryant's Adventures
The Wonderful Escape from Port Jackson
The Voyage described and a harbour discovered
Chased by Torres Straits pirates
The runaway story told before the Bar of the Old Bailey
Interesting account of their escape by the Colonial Secretary
Public Sympathy prevents their execution
Newcastle Morning Herald 7 September 1897

Article No. 10

Lieutenant Shortland's Survey of Newcastle 1797
The Voyage
Discovery of coal
On Signal Hill
Trip around the harbour
Governor Hunter's opinion
Newcastle Morning Herald 9 September 1897

Article No. 11

Biography of the Discoverer of the Hunter River - John Shortland junior b. 1769
His father a distinguished naval worthy
The hero of the hour enters the naval service
Reaches Sydney in H.M.S. Sirius 1787
Perilous voyage to the Cape 1789
Narrowly escapes shipwreck off Tasmania 1789
Famine at Sydney
Shipwrecked at Norfolk Island 1790
Newcastle Morning Herald 14 September 1897

Article No. 13

Engages a squadron of French frigates
Surrender of the Junon
Shortland's fearful sufferings and death
Imposing funeral obsequies
His character
Brother Thomas George Shortland
Newcastle Morning Herald 21 September 1897

Article No. 14

First Overland Journey between Newcastle and Broken Bay 1796
Friendly disposition of Newcastle natives
White woman reported living with the northern blacks
Search for the wild white woman
The woman in England all the time
Discovery of Tuggerah Lakes
Missing white woman Smith
Bryant's voyage told in verse
A romantic incident
Strange disclosures as to their sentences
Newcastle Morning Herald 24 September 1897

Article No. 15

Coal Industry fettered by the British Government
Newcastle Coal trade in 1798
Quarter- master Hacking punishes the Newcastle blacks 1799
First overland journey from Newcastle to Sydney
Newcastle Morning Herald 28 September 1897

Article No. 16.

First export of coal in 1799
Lieut. Flinders directed to survey the Hunter River in 1799
Flinder's voyage along the north coast 1799
The first enterprising coal merchants
Newcastle Morning Herald 1 October 1897

Article No. 17

Discovery of the coal fields of Lake Macquarie in 1800
Seizures of vessels at Broken Bay and Hunter River 1800
Sir Joseph Banks and the coal mining apparatus
Newcastle Morning Herald 5 October 1897

Article No. 18

Governor Hunter and the export of coal
Coal fields near Sydney 1800
A Spanish prize bought for the Newcastle coal trade
Newcastle Morning Herald 8 October 1897

Article No. 19

The first ship to enter Port Hunter
First export of coal to the Cape
Extraordinary school of porpoises in the river
Governor King and the export of coal to the Cape
Newcastle Morning Herald 12 October 1897

Article No. 20

Rebellious Irish Exiles originate settlement at Newcastle 1804
The proposal to settle Newcastle and Port Stephens
A second general insurrection and massacre delays the settlement
Newcastle Morning Herald 15 October 1897

Article No. 23

Coal Island and the new Union Jack
Collier's Point now Fort Scratchley
Newcastle called Sheep Pastures Hills
Newcastle Morning Herald 27 October 1897

Article No. 24

Newcastle admiralty adapted for a settlement
Extraordinary disclosures on Ensign Barralliers chart 1801
Chapman or Onebygamba Island
Fullerton Cove and Oyster Beach
Newcastle Morning Herald 29 October 1897

Article No. 25

Greville Island
Dempster Island
McKellar Island
Mangrove Creek
Floods in the Hunter 1801
Newcastle Morning Herald 2 November 1897

Article No. 26

Lower Mosquito Island originally known as Ash Island
Timber cutters set to work
Coal Island not to be undermined
Newcastle Morning Herald 5 November 1897

Article No. 27

First survey of the mouth of the Hunter
Rescue of a castaway - John Lofts
Earthquake at Newcastle in 1801
Newcastle Morning Herald 9 November 1897

Article No. 28

Loading the schooner Francis
First revenue return in Australia
Newcastle salt works
Commissary Palmer's party at the river
Newcastle Morning Herald 12 November 1897

Article No. 29

Newcastle as a famous lime depot
Wild man of the Newcastle forest
Newcastle as a fishing port
Newcastle Morning Herald 16 November 1897

Article No. 30

Botanical Treasure of the Hunter
Pirate Point pirates and the natives
Harrowing adventures of the Norfolk Pirates
Newcastle Morning Herald 19 November 1897

Article No. 31

First garden or plantation at Newcastle
Newcastle's natural history painter
The first coal dues and regulations
Coal and wool industries prevent abandonment of Australia
Newcastle Morning Herald 23 November 1897

Article No. 32

Governor King establishes a post at Freshwater bay
Newcastle's first government officials
Lieutenant John Murray superintendent to colliers
First vessel to visit Port Waratah
Newcastle Morning Herald 26 November 1897

Article No. 33

The suburbs of Newcastle
The vicinity of Hexham explored in 1801
Raymond Terrace called in Green Hill in 1801
Grant recommends Raymond Terrace for a settlement
Governor King names the Hunter River the Paterson River in 1801
First settlers between Hexham and Hinton
Foundation of Morpeth
Newcastle Morning Herald 30 November 1897

Article No. 34

East and West Maitland explored in 1801
Mount Ann near West Maitland
The two Maitland's early colonists
The Paterson River explored in 1801
Newcastle Morning Herald 3 December 1897

Article No. 35

Paterson Lagoon and Walka Lagoon visited
Mount Elizabeth named - 1801
Incidents of the trip to Donnybrook in 1801
Pioneers of the district between Maitland and Greta
Examination of the Williams River in 1801
Barrallier's chart of the Williams River
The survey party returns to Port Jackson
Newcastle Morning Herald 7 December 1897

Article No. 36

Social intercourse with a Newcastle chieftan
Col. Paterson returns to Newcastle
The first residents of Newcastle
Wixstead becomes unpopular
Newcastle Morning Herald 10 December 1897

Article No. 37

Dr. Martin Mason appointed commandant
Corporal Wixstead censured
Transactions at the settlement
The coal miners under Mason's management
Peaceful Natives
Newcastle Morning Herald 14 December 1897

Article No. 38

Hostile Natives
A native duel at Newcastle in 1801
Newcastle Morning Herald 17 December 1897

Article No. 39

Mutiny of convicts in 1801
Governor King abandons Newcastle settlement 1802
Governor King and the monopolists
Newcastle Morning Herald 21 December 1897

Article No. 40

Surveyor Grimes account of the Hunter
Ensign Barrallier and Captain Shortland
Newcastle Morning Herald 24 December 1897

Article No. 41

Interesting accounts of the coal trade in 1803
Pirates arrested at Newcastle in 1803
Newcastle Morning Herald 28 December 1897

Article No. 42

Newcastle re-established as a township in 1804
The settlement named Newcastle
Newcastle Morning Herald 4 January 1898

Article No 43

New coal regulations in 1804
A valuable private cargo
Newcastle called King's town
The first burials in Christ church cemetery - Archibald Scott
Newcastle Morning Herald 7 January 1898

Article No. 44

First Flagstaff Harbour signals
Coal mines shamefully dug prior to 1804
Plot to assassinate Commandant Menzies in 1804
Fatal escape to Newcastle 1804 - Field, Johnstone and Broadbent
Newcastle Morning Herald 11 January 1898

Article No. 45

Contest with the Upper Hunter Blacks 1804
Tens of thousands of blacks have visited the Valley of the Hunter
Earthquake shock 1804
Charles Throsby at Newcastle 1804
A posse of females for Newcastle
Foolhardy escapes from Newcastle in 1804
Newcastle Morning Herald 14 January 1898

Article No. 46

Romantic Shipping items of 1804
Newcastle first livestock
Extensive bush fires 1804
Natives used for capturing bushrangers
Extensive salt works at Newcastle
Natives attack runaways in 1805
Narrow escape from shipwreck
Newcastle Morning Herald 18 January 1898

Article No. 47

Loss of the colonial schooner Francis 1805
The Surprise wrecked in 1805
Ensign Draffin appointed Commandant
Newcastle Coal mines in 1805
Absconders tried and punished
Natives turn pirates
Hurricane at Newcastle in 1805
Painful and fatiguing journey in 1805
Newcastle Morning Herald 21 January 1898

Article No. 48

Great storms and floods in the Hunter
A Newcastle Tom Paine
Eight Newcastle runaways perish
Bushrangers sent to Newcastle
Newcastle wife selling and elopement
The Governor King dashed to pieces on the Oyster Bank
Earthquake at the Upper Hunter 1806
Newcastle Morning Herald 25 January 1898

Article No. 49

Agricultural Concerns in 1806
Lieutenant Lawson Commandant at Newcastle
Five women banished to Newcastle in 1806
Capture of six pirates off Nobbys
Departure of Gov. King in 1807
Newcastle Morning Herald 28 January 1898

Article No. 50

Newcastle to be a great iron manufacturing centre
Interesting Historical account of the founding of King's town
Newcastle Morning Herald 1 February 1898

Article No. 51

Newcastle Commandant becomes lunatic
The first Statute passed in Newcastle in 1805 adopts the curfew Bell Law Threatened insurrection in 1807
Newcastle Morning Herald 4 February 1898

Article No. 52

Wreck of the Contest in 1807
Strange shipping orders in 1807
Agricultural and mining in 1807
First large ship wrecked at Newcastle in 1808
Newcastle Morning Herald 8 February 1898

Article No. 53

Newcastle under Commandant Throsby
Newcastle between 1805 and 1806
Newcastle's thoroughfares first marked out
Dr. Throsby's resignation and death
Lieutenant Villiers Commandant at Newcastle
Newcastle Morning Herald 11 February 1898

Article No. 54

Telligherry Creek discovered
A fearful flood in the Hunter 1809
Death of Colonel Paterson
Newcastle Morning Herald 18 February 1898

Article No. 55

Barbarous penal laws in 1809
Nobby Island first named
Newcastle Morning Herald 22 February 1898

Article No. 57

Lieut. John Purcell appointed Commandant
Shipping items of 1810
Extraordinary wife selling case 1811
Lieut. Thomas Skottowe appointed Commandant 1811
Newcastle Morning Herald 25 February 1898

Article No. 58

The pillory and stocks in 1811
Newcastle news items
First vice-regal visit to Newcastle
Wreck of the Eliza at Newcastle
First sailors mutiny at Newcastle
Sinking of the Sally in 1812
First Newcastle pilot dues in 1812
Newcastle Morning Herald 1 March 1898

Article No. 59

Lieutenant Thomas Thompson appointed Commandant at Newcastle 1814
Governor Macquarie's acknowledgement of Lieut. Skottowe's services
Fearful murder by Newcastle absconders
Newcastle Morning Herald 4 March 1898

Article No 60

Piratical seizure of the Speedwell 1814
First primitive farms at Maitland
First fatal boat accident in the vicinity of Maitland 1815
Newcastle Morning Herald 8 March 1898

Article No. 61

Curious Newcastle Items
Wrecks of the Estramina and Elizabeth and Mary at Stockton 1816
Great flood in the Hunter 1816
Captain James Wallis appointed Commandant at Newcastle 1816
Wreck of the schooner Edwin at Newcastle
Newcastle Morning Herald 11 March 1898

Article No. 62

Vessels turn turtles in Newcastle harbour
Coal from Newcastle to Batavia
Christ Church Newcastle
Shipping casualties in 1816
Newcastle Morning Herald 15 March 1898

Article No. 63

Two vessels seized by piratical convicts
First public school at Newcastle 1816
First code of shipping signals at Newcastle
Newcastle Morning Herald 18 March 1898

Article No. 64

New coal mine regulations
Governor Macquarie's second visit to Newcastle 1818
Foundation stone of Macquarie pier
Regular divine service established
Newcastle Morning Herald 22 March 1898

Article No. 65

Commandant Wallis' successful rule
Surveyor Oxley at Newcastle 1818
Captain Wallis rule of convicts and natives
Newcastle Morning Herald 25 March 1898

Article No. 66

Commandant Wallis' account of Newcastle and district
Captain Morisset appointed Commandant at Newcastle
Vessel built at Newcastle in 1818
Maitland or Wallis Plains in 1818
Commissioner Bigge's opinion of Newcastle
No public houses in Newcastle in 1820
Great flood in the Hunter in 1819
Newcastle Morning Herald 29 March 1898

Article No. 67

Newcastle in 1820
Convict Barracks in 1820
Hours of labour in 1820
The Lumber yard in 1820
The Coal mines in 1820
Terrible suffering at Lime burning
Convict rations in 1820
First Windmill on Obelisk Hill 1820
Punishment in 1820
Newcastle Morning Herald 1 April 1898

Article No. 68

Newcastle's usefulness to Sydney
Newcastle public buildings in 1820
Government shipping in 1820
Christchurch parsonage 1820
Magisterial treatment of the convicts
Newcastle condemned as a penal settlement
Upper Hunter explored 1820
Commissioner Bigge visits Newcastle
Major Morisset's successful administration
Newcastle Morning Herald 5 April 1898

Article No. 69

Gov. Macquarie's third and last visit to Newcastle 1821
Macquarie's views of Newcastle
Gov. Macquarie visits Wallis Plains
Lieut. Close Superintendent of Works 1821
Newcastle relinquished as a penal settlement
John Bingle one of Newcastle's first traders
Newcastle Morning Herald 8 April 1898

Article No. 70

First two land grants on the Hunter
Original land grants on the Hunter 1821
Settlers on the river in 1822
The Bogie Hole and Newcastle's baths
The reserve in 1822 and later years
The lower public reserves
Newcastle hospital
Site of the hospital for imbeciles in 1822
Soldier's barracks in 1822
Newcastle Morning Herald 12 April 1898

Article No. 71

Church of England Burial Ground
First Court House 1822
Captain Henry Gillman
Gov. Brisbane's visit to Newcastle
The first main roads of the north
Newcastle in 1823 and 1824
Newcastle Morning Herald 15 April 1898

Article No. 72

Newcastle's first lease holders
Newcastle's first post office
The old Court House
Newcastle Morning Herald 19 April 1898

Article No. 73

Hanged for killing natives
Settlers on the Hunter in 1823
Population of Newcastle between 1801 and 1891
Newcastle Morning Herald 22 April 1898

Article No. 74

Hon. James Bunker's birthplace in 1824
Newcastle streets and the land opposite the post office
The joint stock bank site romance
The Hunter pioneers of 1824
Newcastle Morning Herald 26 April 1898

Article No. 75

The Settlers of 1825
Road from Newcastle to Maitland and Patrick Plains
Newcastle Morning Herald 30 April 1898

Article No. 76

Formation of the A.A. Company
The Capital of the Company
The Company's establishment at Port Stephens
Newcastle Morning Herald 3 May 1898

Article No. 77

Monopoly of the coal trade by the Company
Wonderful Rich coal seams
Rapid strides of the coal trade
The coal monopoly abandoned
Disastrous floods 1825 - 1832
Harvest 1825 - 1832
Wreck of the Governor Arthur 1829
Newcastle Morning Herald 6 May 1898

Article No. 78

Gallant conduct of Captain Bingle
Captain Bingle and his money
First Steamer on the Hunter
Opening the new coal works at Newcastle
The one man settler or the Hunter
Newcastle Morning Herald 11 May 1898

Article No. 80

West Maitland in 1820
Drunkenness on the Hunter
Bible leaves turned into the playing cards
Newcastle Officials 1829 and 1830
Canal between Maitland and Morpeth
Newcastle Morning Herald 17 May 1898

Article No. 81

Principal residents in Maitland 1830
Principal settlers at Wallis Plains in 1830
First steamer built on the Hunter
Steam locomotion to Morpeth 1831
Newcastle Morning Herald 20 May 1898

Article No. 81

Newcastle sailing packets 1831
Post Office established at Newcastle
The Garden of Australia
Early settlers at Maitland 1831
Newcastle Morning Herald 24 May 1898

Article No. 82

Governor Darling visits the Hunter 1831
The Hunter settlers address to Gov. Darling
Gov. Darling visits Newcastle
St. Patrick Plains settlers 1831
Newcastle Morning Herald 27 May 1898

Article No. 83

Governor Bourke visits Newcastle 1833
Aboriginal guard of honour
Memorable Newcastle address to Gov. Bourke
Gov. Bourke visits Maitland 1835
Newcastle Morning Herald 31 May 1898

Article No. 84

Address from the settlers on the Williams River
Gov. Bourke visits Patrick Plains
First Ploughing match on the Hunter
First Agricultural Show on Maitland
Newcastle Morning Herald 3 June 1898

Article No. 85

Henry Dangar's services to Newcastle
Neotsfield at the Hunter
Newcastle Morning Herald 7 June 1898

Article No. 86

Atrocious cold blooded massacre 1838
The Hannells of Newcastle
Newcastle Harbour improvements
Newcastle Morning Herald 10 June 1898

Article No. 87

Mr. James Hannells municipal achievements
Mr. James Hannell's political achievements
Mr. James Hannell's death and burial
Inauguration of the turf club - races on the Hunter
Newcastle Morning Herald 14 June 1898

Article No. 88

Description of the first Hunter River races
Newcastle unprotected 1835
Newcastle Magistrates censured
Newcastle Morning Herald 17 June 1898

Article No. 89

Newcastle School of Arts founded in 1835
Wreck of the Success 1835
Wreck of the Ceres steamer 1836
Maitland in 1835
Newcastle Morning Herald 21 June 1898

Article No. 90

Prominent pioneers of the Hunter
Singleton races 1836
Value of Crown land 1836
Land sale near Maitland and Morpeth
Newcastle Morning Herald 24 June 1898

Article No. 91

Memorable Maitland
Criminal case 1835
Great drought in the Hunter 1838
Deputations of Gov. Gipps
Newcastle Morning Herald 29 June 1898

Article No. 92

Gov. Gipps visits Newcastle, Morpeth and Maitland 1839
Newcastle Morning Herald 4 July 1898

Article No. 93

Newcastle earthquakes in 1829, 1837, 1841
Principal residents of Newcastle 1842
Principal residents of Hexham and Raymond Terrace 1842
Bushranger exploits in the Hunter
Newcastle Morning Herald 6 July 1898

Article No. 93

The Jewboy Gang of bushrangers
Bushrangers hanged
Edward Denny Day rewarded
Newcastle Morning Herald 8 July 1898

Article No. 94

Sensational murder case at the Hunter 1844
Newcastle Morning Herald 12 July 1898

Article No. 95

The poisoners tried and condemned
Hanging of the prisoners at Newcastle gaol
Open rebellion at Castle Forbes
Newcastle Morning Herald 15 July 1898

Article No. 96

Outrage by six bushrangers
Capture of the gang
Sensational trial of the bushrangers
Newcastle Morning Herald 19 July 1898

Article No. 97

Horrible disclosures in open court
Death sentence
Execution of the culprits
Newcastle Morning Herald 22 July 1898

Article No. 98

The meanest Hunter River murder on record
Mysterious disappearance of Andrew Menzies
Wonderful aboriginal sagacity and murder will out
Newcastle Morning Herald 26 July 1898

Article No. 99

Shea's hardihood at trial
Shea sentenced to death
Shea confesses and is hanged in Newcastle gaol
Mysterious disappearance of Palfrey
Sensational admissions of Purcell
Newcastle Morning Herald 28 July 1898

Article No. 100

Discovery of Palfreys body
Purcell imprisoned in Newcastle gaol
Newcastle Morning Herald 29 July 1898

Article No. 101

Palfrey found guilty of murder
Newcastle Morning Herald 2 August 1898

Obituary of Henry William Hemsworth Huntington....
The death occurred on Thursday morning at his residence Stephen street, Paddington of Mr. Henry William Hemsworth Huntington at the age of 78 years.
Mr. Huntington was a member of an old Norfolk family and was born at Burnley Hall. He was a grandson of General Hethersett. The late Mr. Huntington arrived in Sydney when nine years of age and his first position was in the office of Daniel Denihy, where young Huntington received a legal training. He afterwards served with Mr. John Williamson also a leading solicitor. Mr. Huntington was chief clerk at the old Central Police Court, and later occupied a position in the Supreme Court. His next appointments were as assistant C.P.S. at Newtown and Newcastle, returning to Newtown as C.P.S. and later becoming C.P.S. at Maclean.
The late Mr. Huntington was a member of the Royal Australian Historical Society and was a life member and the oldest member of the Sydney School of Arts. He was regarded as an authority on early Sydney and on Australian history generally. He was a pioneer journalist on the staff of the Empire and Evening News. He was one of the founders of the Ragged School for Boys in Sydney.
The funeral took place yesterday afternoon in the South Head Cemetery. Obituary of W. Huntington SMH 30 October 1926