Buildings at Newcastle
Image above is Newcastle as it was c. 1822 from the Illustrated Sydney News 8 April 1875
The following List of buildings in Newcastle is from Historical Records of Australia, Vol, IX -
1. ChurchA Handsome neat stone built Church with a Spire, situated on an elevated airy situation (Stonemason James Clohesy)
- Church at Newcastle c. 1819
2. Burial GroundA Burial Ground of 4 acres enclosed with a paling
3. ParsonageA Neat Brick built Stuccoed One Story parsonage house, with a verandah and all the necessary Out Offices and also a kitchen garden and grazing paddock, attached thereto, both enclosed with a paling. Rev. George Augustus Middleton was assistant chaplain at Newcastle in 1822.
4. Commandant's AccommodationThe house and offices for the accommodation of the Commandant repaired, enlarged and considerably improved with a good Kitchen Garden and a large grazing paddock, both enclosed for the use of the Commandant. Colonel James T. Morisset was Commandant at Newcastle in 1822
5. Officer's BarracksA Brick built barrack for three Subaltern Officers, having also the necessary Out Offices and a garden attached thereto
6. Assistant Surgeon's AccommodationA Brick built Barrack for the assistant Surgeon of the Settlement with the necessary Out Offices and Garden attached thereto. Assistant surgeon was George Brooks
7. Soldier's BarracksA Brick built barrack with front verandah for the accommodation of 100 soldiers with the necessary out offices, Guard House and Square in front for parading, the whole of these premises being enclosed with a high brick wall. A large kitchen garden being also attached to the barracks for the use of the troops. The 48th regiment were stationed at Newcastle in 1822
8. Military HospitalA weather-boarded Military Hospital with a verandah in front for the accommodation of 20 patients, enclosed with a paling
No. 5 - Hospital at Newcastle from Dangar's Map of Kingstown c. 1828
9. Colonial HospitalA weather-boarded Colonial Hospital with a verandah in front for the accommodation of 60 patients, having an extensive area of ground round it which is surrounded by a strong Stockade
10. GaolA large commodious Stone built Gaol, the necessary wards, cells and out offices, with apartments for the accommodation of the jailor and his family, the whole of the premises being surrounded with a strong stone wall 12 feet high
11. GranaryA large brick built provision store and Granary.
12. Storekeeper's BarracksA weather boarded barrack for the Storekeeper with garden attached thereto. John Tucker was Storekeeper in 1822
13. Chief Constable's AccommodationA weather boarded barrack for the Chief constable. John Smith was Chief Constable in 1822
14. Principal Superintendent of ConvictsA weather boarded barrack for the Principal Superintendent of Convicts. Isaac Elliot was Superintendent of Convicts and Public Works in 1822
15. Convict BarracksA range of weather boarded barracks for the accommodation of 800 male convicts with kitchen gardens attached thereto
16. Female Convict BarracksA separate small range of Barracks for the accommodation of 50 female convicts
17. Lumber YardA complete Lumber Yard enclosed with a strong stockade.
18. Boat HouseA large boat house for locking up the boats, tackle and oars in
19. Guard HouseA weather boarded Guard House in a high situation over looking the Lumber Yard, Timber Lime and Coal Yard and boat house.
20. Watch HouseA Watch house for the Constables on duty adjoining the Landing Place
21. Barracks for Pilot and Constables>A weather boarded Barrack for the Pilot, Overseers and Constables. William Eckford was Pilot in 1822
22. WharfA good strong substantial Wooden Wharf or quay and landing place for Vessels to load and unload their cargoes at.
23. PierA mole or pier on large substantial plan built of stone now erecting, across the Channel between the main and Coal Island for the purpose of protecting the Harbour of Newcastle from the great Surf coming in through the said channel and also for the purpose of confining the Waters of Hunters River exclusively to one channel so as to prevent the Harbour from being choked up. James Connolly was Principal Overseer at Macquarie Pier in 1822
Image of partially built Macquarie Pier from Dangar's Map of Kingstown c. 1828
24. WindmillsTwo Stone built Windmills for grinding corn
25. Light HouseA small stone tower with Light House. Can be seen on image above, centre right and below on Joseph Lycett's image of Aborigines resting by camp fire, near the mouth of the Hunter River, Newcastle, New South Wales (National Library Australia)
26. Stock YardA long shed with Stock yard for the Government Working Oxen
27. StreetsThe whole of the old streets in the town of Newcastle repaired and some new ones opened and made.
(The History of Early Newcastle 1800 - 1870, Documents and; Illustrations, Edited by D. O'Donnell)
(HRA., i, IX, pp 697-8)
A View of King's Town - Click to enlarge
The above engraving was included in Henry Dangar's Emigrant's Guide - Index and directory to map of the country bordering upon the River Hunter. Published in London : Joseph Cross, 1828
Printed on the engraved image are the following numbered locations: No.1 River Hunter. 2. Public Wharf. 3. Nobby Island 4. North end of Breakwater once intended to connect with the Island. 5. Hospital. 6. Gaol. 7. Police Magistrates Residence. 8. Sessions House. 9. High Land on the South of Port Stephens. 10. Fort, Signal Station and Light.
Notes and Links1). Patrick Riley was employed as overseer of carpenters at Newcastle from approximately 1816 until 1823 when he established an Inn in the township. Some of the buildings above were probably constructed by convict labour under his direction.
2). Overseer of stonemasons James Clohesy arrived on the convict ship Somersetshire in 1814
3). Overseer of stonemasons James Connolly arrived on the Providence in 1811
4). Reminiscences of Watt Street
5). Harbour Lights