Date of Seniority Royal Navy 2 April 1803
James Rutherford was appointed Surgeon in the Royal Navy on 2 April 1803.
He was appointed to H.M.S. Majestic in 1808. 
In 1814 his name was on the List of gentlemen of the University of Edinburgh upon whom the degree of Doctor in Medicine was conferred, dated 6 January 1814 (De Febre Flava
He was entered in the Navy List of Medical Officers in 1814.
He was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on four convict ship voyages to Australia:
He was on the list of retired surgeons of the Royal Navy in 1841.
James Rutherford was a brother of surgeon George Shaw Rutherford
 The Naval Chronicle
 Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal